Seminal work by Bradley and Caldwell identified important aspects of the home environment that are related to children’s well-being. Their widely used Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale assesses the type and frequency of interactions and learning experiences that parents provide for their children, both inside and outside the home. All children do not enter school equally equipped to master its associated challenges. The literature linking parental reading to infants and toddlers with emergent literacy skills led the American Academy of Pediatrics to recommend that pediatricians “prescribe” reading to parents beginning when their children are 6 months old. The relationship between poverty and child health has been a focus of attention for decades , and a relationship between low SES and poor health has been well known at least since the beginning of the 18th century.
However, only recently have we come to realize that increments to socioeconomic position are positively associated with health at virtually all social levels . Children who live, attend school, or play near busy roads or in crowded urban areas, where they are exposed to the exhaust from automobiles and trucks, may experience acute and chronic respiratory effects.
And children demonstrating difficulties with aggression and peer rejection in middle school are more likely than other children to have demonstrated such problems during their toddler years . There are many definitions of a neighborhood or community environment (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997). In empirical studies, it is typically a geographic area defined by the Census Bureau . But there are social definitions of communities that transcend geographic boundaries and can vary across families and ethnic groups .
Therefore, the motivation to act with reference to the slowly arthritis in hands developing problems of chronic disease is not nearly so great as was the motivation to act in preventing the contagious diseases. If you feel dizzy for more than an hour and develop other symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, seek medical attention. Dizziness is also related to several other health issues, including high blood pressure, low blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid disease, anemia, dehydration and heart conditions. One way in which television viewing or video game use is thought to be related to increased weight in children is that time spent with these media displaces physical activity.
Because of the interactive nature of video games, both researchers and the public are particularly concerned about the effects on children of violent content in such games . Poor social acceptance is problematic for children during childhood and beyond. Socially rejected, aggressive 3–5-year-old children have demonstrated stress hormone levels in the top third of their class, often spiking to the “stress” level .